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Groupthink

While defining what a groupthink is, we may say it is a method of contemplating on different matters that people get engaged in when they are totally concentrated on a cohesive in-group speculating or while the participants’ longing for unanimity override the decision-making process to confidentially appraise different ways of discussion. The fact that it corresponds to reality is beyond any possible doubts. It is definitely unusual occasion when a certain number of citizens gets together and starts contemplating in a group having one opinion. Nevertheless, it is a useful way to finding an optimal solution to different problems happening to us in our everyday life. We have to understand the thing that it is definitely unusual situation when some decisions are gained with the help of certain community.

Solving the Problem

Quite often we happen to solve, for instance, some problems when searching for ourselves the right way-out; yet, concerning the groupthink, we need to be aware of the fact that it mainly refers to analytical summary of all the members of so-called “community”. What is more, it is also necessary to take into consideration the point that group thinking can provide rather unexpected inferences. The thing is that it may elaborate some new approaches to understanding many ordinary things we are regularly in contact with. With the help of group thinking people are able to make different items certain and clear. Furthermore, it allows simplifying the way we overcome while striving for the desired results.

About thirty-five years ago, speaking about such psychologists as Irving Janis from Yale University, we would need to take into consideration the fact that he published the paper in the Yale Alumni Journal emphasizing how certain number of smart men elaborating some new ideas together in order to find solution to a certain difficulty can quite often arrive at the worst possible way-out. It is an obvious fact. He named his radical present-day theory a groupthink. Groupthink demonstrates a tendency to take place in isolated groups, particularly in those without any clear rules for making decisions and in groups in which all people are with alike backgrounds.

The example of prominent group thinking is a group thinking of Pearl Harbor. Many well-known officers at Pearl Harbor did not worry on the matter of some claims from Washington DC concerning possible intrusion in a serious way despite the fact that Japanese notifications had been intercepted. The point is that it is all related to the inner mechanism of certain groups. The group represents subcultural group membership.

Taking an example of groupthink in the world history we may present a groupthink in the Bay of Pigs. It is regarded to be one of the best examples of groupthink in American history. It is the obvious fact, and there are many proofs that support the statement mentioned above. The thing is that we need to draw attention to such claims due to its forming the basic understanding of our discussion issue.

Etzioni explored people in organizations conform to organizational requirements

Compliance is ensured by organizational control and authority structures, formal hierarchies of authority, supervision, job definitions

  1. Bureaucracy permits a state to accomplish large and difficult obligations, offers an effective way for repetitive missions and provides certain order in the country.

The first characteristic of bureaucracy is a hierarchy. This is one of the principal chains referring to our discussion item. The hierarchy includes power stages that form certain subsequent directions. It means that the main individual in power controls the stages. The further peculiarity of the bureaucratic frame relates to certain rules. We cannot but state it to be definitely one of the basic features of bureaucracy.

The precise fundamentals of power demand much effort in to provide control by rules and regulations. We cannot but state it to have quite reasonable basics.

The third distinctive item of bureaucracy refers to the organization. It is quite obvious and out of certain hesitations. The organization remains the current key to the appropriate process of the bureaucracy functioning. This issue confirms that participants are positioned by function and abilities in order to keep alike persons in a group. As for the next key point of our discussion item, it is mainly about the focus. It is necessary to take into account the fact that it is vividly seen. Focus serves to fulfill the needs of members.

The fifth feature of Weber refers to the treatment of all workers, participants and customers of the discussion item. It is clear, and we need to pay serious attention to the statement mentioned above. Impersonality appears to be outstanding while speaking about success of the principles. The last peculiarity is considered to be qualification. This characteristic is also of great importance while contemplating on the matter of bureaucracy. This virtue refers to defense from dismissal without any certain reason. It is quite clear and does not require any additional clarifications.

  1. The problems are hard-and-fast rules and fixed procedures. For example the poorly serve the health of the citizens, in school who fail to educate, in the governments someone who has more power than the public.
  • In Ritzer's reconceptualization, McDonaldization is the process of rationalization that Weber found inherent in bureaucracies extended to fast-food chains such as McDonalds under globalization.
  • In Ritzer's reconceptualization, McDonaldization is the process of rationalization that Weber found inherent in bureaucracies extended to fast-food chains such as McDonalds under globalization.
  • In Ritzer's reconceptualization, McDonaldization is the process of rationalization that Weber found inherent in bureaucracies extended to fast-food chains such as McDonalds under globalization.
  1. Macdonaldization is the process of rationalization which is inherent in bureaucracies to fast food chains such as McDonalds under globalization.

Human Behavior Experience

The Human Behavior Experiments present experiments (and real life situations) about the corrupting influence of authority. One good point Zimbardo makes in the movie is giving the right circumstances. He shows facts, theories, speculations about human behavior and authority, how people react to certain situations and why we are hugely relevant to every human being and how we live.

The Stanford Prison Experiment

The Stanford Prison Experiment is a study of psychological effects of the people who became a prisoner or prison guard. It is a true experiment which was conducted in Stanford University. 24 male students were participating in this experiment, having the roles of prisoners and guards. Certain parts of experiment were filmed. The result of Prison experiment showed the power of authority. This experiment also illustrated the cognitive dissonance  theory which means the feeling of discomfort when you have the conflict of ideas and believes.

The research determines that the impact of group plays an important role. Personality or a whole  are able to listen the leader and they will do everything the leader says. The group has more force and the impact of someone in the group is important.

Guards were using the physical punishment, everything was doing in groups. It me surprised a lot.