Women have been principal victims of gender-based discrimination at work places. The discrimination against women emanates from cultural and religious traditions that undermine women’s position in a society. High levels of discrimination in the market place have hindered the development of talent among women. This is because of the loss of confidence that women experience in all institutions. According toWelle & Heilman (2006), women are not given a chance to work freely in society. In fact, some women are not given access to education, which prevents them from developing both personally and professionally. This in turn limits their ambitions, making them unable to contribute to the well being and development of the society. Lack of proper education has left some women illiterate and unable to get advantage of numerous job opportunities in a society. Thus, they continue to depend on men for the satisfaction of their basic needs. In the job market women are often discriminated in terms of wages and promotions. For instance, women get lower wages even if they work as hard as their male counterparts. In addition, they are not given an opportunity to rise to managerial positions in organizations. This essay describes gender-based discrimination against women especially at work places.
Assumptions of the Field
Literature review has revealed various factors that contribute to the negative treatment of women in a society. These factors include social practices, which play an instrumental role in the discrimination of women. Gender discrimination is the total exclusion of women from the labor market. Lack of confidence among women leads to even more discrimination, while lack of mobility in its turn impedes the development of useful professional skills amongst women.
The literature reveals that the primary cause of gender discrimination against women is routed in religious and cultural beliefs. Strongly established attitudes and religious beliefs that work against the development of women in the society are the cause of rampant discrimination against women. Banda (2008, p. 55) asserts that women are often denied the opportunity to engage in various economic activities because the latter are perceived to be masculine activities according to their respective cultures. Consequently, women are left out of the mainstream economic activities that could contribute to the development of the society and women’s individual development. These cultural and religious beliefs have hindered women from developing and displaying their talents hence increasing the extent of discrimination even more.
Another important assumption that exists in the literature on female discrimination is that gender discrimination should be solely defined as the total exclusion of women from participation in the labor market. Moreover, based on the literature it can be concluded that only women are victims of discrimination in a society. Men are not victims of the gender discrimination and hence are not included in the definition. Unlike their male counterparts, only women are denied a possibility to benefit from numerous opportunities. Thus, it is assumed that society should only be dealing with gender discrimination in relation to women. Men should not be taken into consideration, since they are the ones who benefit form this discrimination. They take advantage of the opportunities in the labor market at the expense of women with potential.
There also exists a notion that lack of mobility is the reason why women cannot develop their professional skills. Mobility of a person is perceived to be a vital component of the development of knowledge and the acquisition of the necessary skills. Women are not given the opportunity to move freely from one point to another in search for education and other developmental opportunities. ‘A Study on the Status of Women’ (1999, p. 10), asserts that this leads to increased illiteracy and ignorance among women. Lack of adequate education, knowledge, and skills plays an instrumental role in their discrimination making women unable to defend their rights and freedoms. Discrimination worsens as women are perceived to be intellectually inferior to male gender and unable to contribute to the development of the society. This leaves women in terrible situation and increases the chances for their discrimination in the job market.
Lastly, it is assumed in the literature that lack of confidence among women contributes to their discrimination. Women lack the required levels of confidence to express themselves in the society. They do not believe in themselves and cannot adequately discuss and debate about various issues affecting them. The lack of confidence among women has played an instrumental role in the persistence of discrimination. Esteve-Volart (2004, p. 17) points out that women are not able to defend the view- points in the society hence making themselves difficult to be heard. Lack of confidence prevents them from speaking against the injustices in the society and, as a result, they remain submissive to the male gender. Eventually, this lack of confidence has enabled men to take advantage and continuously discriminate women.
Issues of Discourse, Contention, and Divergence
The literature highlights various areas of discourse giving special attention to education and the opportunities for women on the job market. Thus, it is important to take into consideration these two spheres to ensure that appropriate remedial measures are put in place to curb gender-based discrimination against women. The literature asserts that researchers should focus on putting in place measures that would help solve the various problems faced by women in the education sector and the job market. For instance, women are perceived to lack the experience to be able to handle some of the bigger issues in the society. Beiter (2006, p. 20) claims that women are denied the opportunity to move and access the essential education that would propel them to higher standards of living and higher positions in organizations. Thus, women have not been able to express themselves effectively in the society. They do not get the opportunity to speak about some of the crucial issues affecting them.
The area of contention in the literature is the extent of the discrimination. Researchers do not agree regarding the discrimination levels and what could be considered as discrimination. Some of them assert that discrimination entails total denial of the vital opportunities for women while others assert that discrimination is the limitation of the development of women e.g. denial of promotion. According to Peterson (2009, p. 77) it is not yet agreed whether discrimination should only mean the total denial of opportunities. This is the key area of contention in the presented literature due to the lack of mutual agreement.
The divergent perspectives that exist in the literature are that women contribute to their own discrimination in the society. This is divergent from the existing view that gender discrimination solely emanates from egoistic men, discriminative traditions, and culture that exist in a society. According to the ‘Report of the Committee on the Elimination of
Discrimination against Women’ (2005), this perspective diverges from the normal known perspective that gender based discrimination must come from the opposite gender. Males are in the reason why discrimination exists, but women also contribute to their own misfortunes. They lack the required level of authority that would enable them to discuss these issues in the society.
Research focus falls on the factors making women vulnerable to discrimination in the society and the efficient solutions to these issues. This topic investigates the issues that make women extremely vulnerable to gender based discrimination. It is aimed at solving these issues and shedding light on the question why women are the only individuals that are discriminated in the society. It would also present various solutions to the problems in order to ensure that remedial measures are taken appropriately. The research would also focus on advising women on the effective means of evading discrimination in the society. The interest of this research is centered on explaining the various issues that expose women to discrimination and advise them on the efficient emancipation measures. It would help women to gain required levels of courage that would be effective in assisting them to fight discrimination and agitate for recognition and fairness in the society.
This topic fills in a gap in the research as it touches on similar issues. This is because it explicates the factors making women excessively vulnerable to discrimination. ‘Report of the Committee on the Elimination of Discrimination against Women’ (2005) gives a wider scope of discrimination and gives a thorough explanation of all the issues making women discriminated against. In addition, the research is useful since it motivates women to struggle for self-emancipation and fighting discrimination. It points out that discrimination will only worsen if women are hesitant in taking effective measures to prevent further male dominance. In addition, women will be informed about various measures that can be used in order to avert discrimination. It will enable women to realize that success of remedial measures greatly depends on themselves. Thus, they would be careful and persistent in their actions.
The topic relates to the literature in terms of its description of discrimination and some of the remedial measures that could be adopted in the fight it. The topic tackles various issues that are also indicated in the literature. In addition, it offers solutions that are related to the literature to help women fight discrimination using effective measures. This relationship is crucial, as it is indicative of the same perspectives related to discrimination in the society. It indicates that the problems faced by women all over the world are related.
Redefining the Topic
Initially, I defined the problem as the societal injustices against women. The idea behind this was that the setting of the society and the existing beliefs cause the problems that women face. Women are not in a position to make personal decisions relating to the goals they would like to pursue in the society. Women are put under immense suffering by the society that is supposed to protect them as its equal members. The society is the key obstacle to the achievement of the objectives of women as it creates unfavorable conditions that work against women. Kambel (2004, p. 75) asserts that the society plays the primary role in preventing women from rising to higher positions in the job market. The topic might be redefined in the future as the lack of equal opportunities in the society. This means that women would feel discriminated in cases they have not been given equal chances of leadership in various areas starting from the political scene. They would want to have a fair share in all leadership activities that exist in the society. For instance, women would want to have their own representatives in order to feel secure and free from discrimination. Denial of these equal opportunities would cause more discrimination, which is not desirable.
In conclusion, gender based discrimination affects women because they are unable to pursue their various dreams. They face discrimination in different spheres especially in the education sector and the job market. They are not given equal opportunities as their male counterparts. This has been instrumental in increasing illiteracy levels among women hence making them unable to satisfy their professional ambitions. The literature assumes that culture and religion play a significant role in the discrimination of women. They do not allow women to discuss their issues in the society hence making it difficult for them to rise to higher levels of leadership. Discriminative nature of some cultures and religions deny women the access to education hence limiting them to perform house tasks. Kambel (2004) asserts that women also contribute to their discrimination through lack of confidence. This means that they are not able to express their dissatisfaction in the society. They continually believe in male dominance in various spheres. Based on the literature, the assumption is that discrimination should only be defined as the total exclusion of women from economic activities because women are its only victims.