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Non-territorial organizations are entities that possess supremacy and authority concerning rule making. In this regard, non-territorial organizations have a legitimate source of authority that allows them to make rules within their domain of operation and enforce those rules. In addition, these organizations have the capacity to delegate power to other players allowing them to enforce the rules defined by a non-territorial organization. Furthermore, non-territorial organizations do not belong to any particular institution of a state. The supremacy and authority of non-territorial organizations gives them significant influence in various international affairs within the social, economic and political scope. Since they make and enforce their own laws, non-territorial organizations have no allegiance to a particular country. Although these organizations operate within national laws of countries of concern, they regulate their own functions (Spruyt, 1994). Non-territorial organizations operate in multiple countries with their activities driven by the organizations’ own goals and objectives rather than promoting the benefits of a particular country. In this regard, rather than having a centralized base of operations with only sub-branches in the countries of interest, non-territorial organizations set up independent head offices in diverse regions of the world with each head office responsible for executing duties that conform to organizational goals and objectives. Territorial restrictions that define boundaries and limit powers of entities have minimal impacts on the operations of non-territorial organizations. Thus, while a municipality functions within a particular jurisdictional area, the jurisdiction of a non-territorial organization is unbound.

Territorially alienated entities, irrespective of their public authority, only influence individuals or entities within their jurisdictional area. Outside their jurisdictional areas, territorially alienated entities lose their public authority because other entities are responsible for enforcing authority in these areas. On the other hand, non-territorially alienated entities exercise independent authority on persons and other entities across different boundaries. The authority of a non-territorial organization does not consider that individuals and entities on which it acts reside in jurisdictions that territorially alienated entities have restricted authority (Bendix, 1973).

Non-territorial organizations place little emphasis on matters of ethnicity, culture, language and religious characteristics in implementing their goals and objectives, which is an approach that creates equal access to opportunities even for minority groups. The impacts of legislative and regulatory powers differ between non-territorial organizations and territorially alienated entities. While the latter must conform to the legislative provisions of a state and regulatory decisions pertaining to an individual or entity, non-territorial organizations are not subject to legislative enactments. In this regard, laws of the national parliament or sub legislators are not applicable to the public authority of non-territorial organizations. These institutions enjoy significant levels of freedom since the constitution and various decrees of the government have minimal curtailing effects on their operations. Thus, non-territorial organizations can operate without concerns on legislative enactments relating to budgetary powers and tax. Although non-territorial organizations are subject to particular regulator powers, these regulations are not fully legislative, but by-laws that adhere to the legislative provisions defined by the national parliament. Thus, unlike territorially alienated entities, which must adhere to full legislations and administrative decisions that define their jurisdiction, non-territorial organizations work within laws formulated in response to individual cases rather than matters of state.


Analysis of the characteristics of non-territorial organizations illustrates that they are entities that operate within a particular scope of laws and regulations. Both the laws defined by non-territorial organizations and states within which they operate provide a favorable environment and framework that gives the organizations significant autonomy in executing their goals and objectives with minimal interference by legislative enactments and administrative decisions of particular states. Thus, all non-territorial organizations have supreme power and authority that allows them to operate across diverse boundaries.