The main purpose of the experiment is to enable the students to be able to identify and know the distinctive functions and structure of both the plant and animal cells. The components of the cell are also to be studied and the role they play in the cell. It is also aimed at giving the distinctive difference between the plant cell and the animal cell.
The experiment is done using the microscope to help the students observe the organelles which are found in the cell. The observation of the cell is based on certain principles such as the smallest living unit of the organism, all organisms are made up of one or more of the cells and they develop from he pre existing cells. The students used the light microscope which has good magnifying power with the ability to identify more details than the naked eyes. The observed object is computed by getting the product of the eye piece and the object lens.
The predicted results are that the nucleus is to be found to be centrally placed in the cell in the animal cell but on the periphery of the plant cell. The animal cell will only have the cell membrane but the plant cell is expected to have both the cell membrane and the cell wall. The cytoplasm of the animal cell is expected to be found to be thick and bulky while the plant cell has a thin. In the plant cell the chloroplast which has green coloring matter is expected but absent in the animal cell.
The microscope is placed on the table and the low power objective lens is in focusing point and adjust the lens to allow for the entrance of enough light. The specimen is placed on the slide which is then looked through the eye piece until the specimen and the slide is close to each other while the lens is being adjusted. During the observation all the eyes must be kept open to reduce the chances of straining the eyes.
The students are able to observe the organelles found in the cell such as nucleus, golgi apparatus, cell wall, cell membrane and mitochondria in the specimen placed on the slide.
The plant cell has both the cell membrane and the cell wall while the animal cell only have the cell membrane and the cellulose cell of the plant cell is located outside of the cell membrane. It is also observed that the animal cell has thick and bulky cytoplasm and centrally placed while that of the plant cell is located on the side of the cell and it is thin. The animal cell has no chloroplast for the formation of the chlorophyll while the plant cell has abundant of the chloroplast in most of the parts of the cell.