(a) A customer focus is the central aspect of TQM. This means that all improvements in the process are always after meeting customer needs and expectations. The customer is the most
(b) The organization must put standardized procedures in place.
It also includes a statement of job allocation
It also includes Check sheets to ensure that the organization does not skip any steps.
(c) It calls for an extensive and thorough change of organizational culture management systems
It leads to increased assessment and improvement of value to the customer.
(a) Check sheets
Cause and Effect (Ishikawa) Diagrams
(b) It shows the flow of processes. It is beneficial to an organization since it is easy to construct and it also enables the organization to detect problems at any stage in the whole process.
(c) A Pareto diagram puts information in a hierarchical order. This allows an organization to see problems that can be easily corrected. The organization can also use it to identify nonconformities and inconsistencies.
Deming advocated against this because it is not the proper way to address performance. He said that the management should investigate common cause variation. He said that the system causes many problems. It is not the employees as many people may think
(a) Special causes of variation that might be observed in the course of travelling by car to work each day include Driver may lack of access to fuel. There may be a mechanical breakdown of the car
The use of NP Chart is advisable.
This is because the scientific method involves:
- Stating the hypothesis
- Experimental design
- Data collection and analysis
Such a team will have an advantage in that a lot of information is present to guide the whole process.
(a) The funnel experiment is a physically representation of an activity. The experiment proves that a process
It shows that a process in control only deliver the best results if it the existing administrators leave it alone without any thing tampering with it.
The four setting rules of the experiment all depict the effects of tampering with the process
(b) The red beads experiment proves that system variation is always present in any activity.
Problem one is adjusting a stable process in the organization. The funnel activity can be used to refer to this problem. This adjustment may lead to destabilization of the whole process.
Problem 2 results if variation is not understood.
Problem two is ranking staff on the basis of common cause variation.
7. (a) Factorial designs for experiments help to analyze effects of different factors. The researcher varies the factors simultaneously unlike in the case of one factor at a time experiment where only one variable can be changed at a time. Factorial experiments are faster. They help to collect data quickly.
(b) Some of the factors that designate the number of experiments to be done include the size of the research sample, the nature of research,
(c) A type one error refers to the rejection of a null hypothesis that is potentially true.
(a) Advantages of Closed Ended questionnaires
It provides an easier and quicker way for respondents to answer.
Answers that the respondents give allow the researcher to make comparisons
(b) Disadvantages of Closed Ended
Answers may not be honest since some respondents may answer anything, even when they have nothing to
If many interviewers give many response choices, this may confuse the respondent
(c) Control limits are horizontal lines that researchers draw on a statistical process control chart.
Specification limits are boundaries that depict acceptable performance for an activity. They may be shown by upper or lower limits. They are independent of plotted sample statistic’s distribution.
Stratified sampling ensures a balanced sample. This sample is more likely to produce accurate results than the other types of sampling
However, such a sample is harder to work with since it is taxing to collect data from the entire sample.
(a) Some of the stratification variables that may be used include ranks and salary and wage allocations and age. The former is crucial in the measurement of confidence and hard work within the organization. One may wonder if the older workers more productive than the younger ones.
Salaries and wages determine the level of motivation of employees. This can also be a strategic variable for choosing stratified samples. This way, there will be different representative samples of the whole population.