Management practices are the techniques and methods that are considered very effective and practical for the achievement of organizational objectives (Drucker, 1954). These objectives may include the eradication of environmental pollutants in an area. The practices include planning, organizing, organizing, staffing, controlling, and leading. All of these practices are conducted for optimum utilization of the resources in the firm.
This paper addresses management practices in an organization and gives practical examples from an employee of Bima Insurance Company, with John working as its plan analyst. The paper gathers information relating to the functions of management practices form secondary sources of information. The need for reliable information is vital in the study of the subject matter. Supplementary information was obtained through the process of interviewing.
Planning is made up of a number of principles that make up the process. Contribution to the objective is the first principle in planning. The objectives of an organization are vital for its success. This principle focuses on the relation of the objectives and the plans made for the firm. For instance, when an organization sets its objective on improving productivity, the plans made should purpose to improve the firm's production.
Objectives that are purposed for an organization should be achievable, verifiable, and clear. This explains why their simplicity is related to their success (Drucker, 1954). The need for these requirements on objectives brings meaning to the people involved. Another vital aspect of planning is its primacy. The need for planning is principal in an organizational structure. Comparing the logic of managerial functions, planning is of most importance. This is because without a proper plan for an organization, the framework of the firm is undefined. Efficiency of the plan is key for its successful implementation. This means that plans should address their intended purpose with limited effort. The offset of objectives and purpose are the benchmark for efficient plans in a firm.
Planning premises are crucial in their structure. An individual who is charged in the area of planning is a clear indicator of the utilization of premises (Hannagan, 1995). When there is proper, consistent use of the premises, the enterprise's planning becomes more coordinated. The policy framework and strategy is a basic foundation for organizational planning. Implementation and comprehension of policies and strategies in practice improves the efficiency and consistency of the firm's framework in its plans.
In the process of planning, the limiting factor is critical in selection and implementation. While selecting alternatives, those that attract quick and easy factors are given as critical or limiting factors in their success. This process is done by individuals who suggest particular factors as either limiting or critical in application and are determined accurately. The commitment principle focuses on ensuring that through logical planning, there is enough time allocated to the plans for the realization of benefits. For instance, John Max (the chief plan analyst for an insurance firm) had to ensure that plans were given adequate time for materialization. The process of time allocation was done through logical estimation of both limiting and crucial aspects that affect implementation. The final decisions made on the plan are expected to be fulfilled by the end of this time. While creating organizational plans for his insurance firm, Max had to advocate flexibility. Plans that are flexible wipe out the cause of unexpected circumstances. They are able to cope with the factors that were not considered while creating them. Flexibility cuts down on any losses and costs due to these events. While looking at flexibility, the advantages are weighed before assuming them (Hannagan, 1995).
The principles that affect the whole process of planning form its success structure. Bima Insurance Company has its planning process done rigorously. This explains the importance of planning before any other process in an enterprise. This firm was known for its suitability in planning as the process addressed the critical principles of success.
The development of organizing has not reached the point that presents principles as infallible laws. Scholars can only account for a number of these principles as laws. They are truths that address general applicability despite their undefined application. Organizing of functions brings meaning to objectives and promotes efficiency in the firm (Hannagan, 1995).
For the organizational structure to be effective, there has to be unity in its objectives (Hannagan, 1995). This is vital as it contributes towards individual understanding. In Bima Company, the objectives set towards the goal of market shares had to relate with other parallel objectives. Max explains that there had to be a relation with all objectives. This is because a union of goal achieving objectives defines the employees' comprehension. The efficiency of the organization is accomplishment of the firm's objectives with least costs and consequences. The organization has to be structured for the goals to be achieved efficiently. Organization structure is purposed to address the limitation attached to management span. This is an important principle that talks about the number of individuals who can be managed by certain persons. The limit set for the number of individuals is not precise as it is affected by other underlying factors.
Authority is the basis of organizational structure (Beck, 1986). This touches on all aspects in the organization. It is a tool that allows managers to exercise discretion and encourage an environment of individual performance. The principles related to organizing are focused on authority. The principle of scalar talks about a firm having clear lines of authority for the top echelon to the lowest position. It is only through developing of these lines that the role of decision making would be communicated. On the other hand, while delegating authority to individual managers, an evaluation of achieving the expected results is crucial. Many firms suffer from undefined lines of responsibility. For instance, Max talks of a case of undefined authority in Bima. The reason for this problem was a new management body had been introduced. There were mixed responsibilities because of the new line of market. The subordinate body has the responsibility of delivering performance to their superiors. The superiors then ensure the responsibility of organizational activities is conducted (Drucker, 1954).
Responsibility and parity of authority play an important role in organizing. It states that the responsibility for action ought not to exceed or be less than that delegated by authority. Command, on the hand, has to be in unity as regards the reporting duty for a subordinate to the superiors. When the command comes from one individual, then the issue of conflicting directives would be controlled. The resulting efforts would find the appropriate individual. Related to authority and command is the authority-level in the firm. The ability of an individual manager to make a decision that is in their duty without shifting responsibility to higher levels. For example, a manager in the department of accounting in Bima Company was faced with a dilemma when asked whether she could give the analysis for their annual report. This is a direct duty that she should perform without shifting responsibility.
Balance is important in organizing as a management practice. Achieving effectiveness depends on the balance between principles and methods in organizing. Flexibility in organizing caters for the extent to which the purpose is served. Facilitation from the authority is significant in the structure of the organization. Performance from individuals can be boosted by facilitation from their authority. An organization like Bima practices methods of performance boosting, like appraisals and performance management.
While looking at the purpose, the objectives come into picture. The qualification levels and interests are key factors in selecting the staff in managerial positions. They have to be willing to perform in those positions that are being given. Staffing requires that be a vivid definition of the roles in the organization and the requirements by the human resources department (Beck, 1986). Meeting this need assures the firm a staff that is best qualified and able. The job definition is given clearly to those pursuing the position. It provides the results expected from the managers and their dimensional ability defined.
Having an open competition for candidates assures quality management. This is done by allowing all candidates to participate in the application of the vacancy. In the area of training, it is paramount that the objectives for training are given (Anderson, 1960). Stating these objectives increases the chances of achieving them altogether. After employment, there is an aspect of self-development, where the managers strive to increase their expertise and qualification. The firm values the benefits of better skills and ideas. For Bima Insurance, those individuals with more skills and qualifications with time are promoted. This strategy is purposed to increase the interest of increasing value.
Harmony of the objective contributes greatly towards leading in an organization. This calls for harmony between the goals of the firm and those of individual (Beck, 1968). The personal objectives of managers should run in tandem with organizational goals. Both the firm and the individuals work towards one direction. There should be a successful strategy that rewards the efforts, thus boosting individual effort in the firm. These programs ought to center around individual motivation for the long-term advantage of the company.
In leadership, there is an aspect of motivating others by actions. These managers need to have the ability of influencing the subordinate staff to work the same way. This indicator of good leadership is based on motivators like accountability and diligence.
There has to be a clear communication basis in an organization. This affects clarity and integrity of communication. As for clarity, the message has to be delivered in a language and the way of transmission that are familiar to the receiver. Integrity of the message accounts for the degree of acceptance by those receiving it (Anderson, 1960). When there is consistency and the integrity is great, the receiver of the message tends to believe it. The letters, memorandum, and any message to be communicated to staff had to bear the authentication of the superior and concerned authority in Bima Insurance. This enabled the message be taken with the right amount of seriousness it deserved. The confirmatory indicator was based on their signatures and relevant stamp identification.
The nature and purpose of control affects the general structure of an organization. Control ensures that the plans are followed properly and deviations are avoided (Drucker, 1954). Any deviations are detected and an action is designed to correct them. These deviations are either undesired or potential for the plan. They might reduce the levels of expectations in terms of results for the firm. Those managers who are responsible for the performance of the plan take control of it. While eliminating these deviations in plans, the methods and approaches should be efficient as they incur minimum consequences and costs.
Direct controls are avoided by the presence of quality in the managerial section. The managers are required to be highly skilled so that there is preventive control (Anderson, 1960). The control of the firm needs to be accurate and of suitable standards. In control, assessing the factors that might alter the plan is important. These are critical areas that might change the result of the plan. Action as a principle in control affects planning, leading, and organizing. These are the steps taken in solving the issue of deviations and their efficiency.
Management practices are the techniques and methods that are considered very effective and practical for the achievement of organizational objectives. The nature and purpose of control affect the general structure of an organization. Control ensures that the plans are followed properly and deviations are avoided (Drucker, 1954). Planning is made up of a number of principles that make up the process. Contribution to the objective is the first principle in planning. The objectives of an organization are vital for the realization of a firm's success. For the organizational structure to be effective, there has to be unity in the objectives (Hannagan, 1995). This is vital as it contributes towards individual understanding.
While looking at the purpose, the objectives come into picture. The qualification levels and interests are key factors in selecting the staff in managerial positions. They have to be willing to perform in those positions that are being given. Harmony of the objective contributes greatly towards leading in an organization. This calls for harmony between the goals of the firm and those of individual (Beck, 1968). The nature and purpose of control affect the general structure of an organization. Control ensures that the plans are followed properly and deviations are avoided (Drucker, 1954). Any deviations are detected and an action is designed to correct them. These practices are such as planning, organizing, staffing, controlling, and leading. As these practices are conducted, they foster optimum utilization of the resources in the firm.