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An advanced civilization has certain key elements which differentiate I from ordinary civilization. Advanced civilization has advanced agricultural techniques which in turn results into specialization. Advanced civilizations result into the emergence of trade due to surplus production. Increased specialization leads to increased output and concentration of populations in urban centers leading to the growth of cities. The development of urbanism and Agriculture in turn leads to the need for other developments such as laws leading to increased specialization such as priests, lawyers and political systems. The increased specialization also leads to advancements in science and technology (Winks, 2005).

There are several factors that lead to the development of an advanced civilization most of which hinge on Agriculture. The development of Agriculture is related to climatic conditions and fertile soils which enable the evolution of Agriculture as evidenced by the Fertile Crescent civilizations and the Indus Valley civilizations. Developments in Agriculture are a fundamental aspect that eventually results into advanced civilizations. Increased food production as a result of improved Agricultural innovations and inventions results into the growth of urban centers. Urban centers grow out of increased food production since as people have more food they tended to leave the nomadic lifestyle and settled down in more permanent settlements (Fernandez, 2001). Permanent settlements on the other hand led to an increase in population since it was easier to raise children in permanent settlements. This in turn led to pressure to increase Agricultural production which resulted into more innovations and development of technology and tools. Agriculture also led to the development of religion and government as there was an increasing need for control over nature and over Agricultural activities. Innovations in Agriculture led to surpluses and also made available free time leading to the development of specialization. Improved Agriculture thus led to the development of other fields such as philosophy, mathematics, astronomy, poetry, and religion (Fernandez, 2001). Agriculture is thus one of the most fundamental aspects of the development of advanced civilization.