logo
Welcome! When you buy a paper from Top-Dissertations.com, it is going to be the best custom essay you may ever think of.

telephone

   

Theorizing Same-Sex Sexuality in Africa

← Cash Basis and Accruals

Buy custom Theorizing Same-Sex Sexuality in Africa essay

Abstract

The main focus of this paper is to present sociological assumptions of same-sex sexuality, disregarding its origination from western countries and the failure it brings as a result of its inclusion. Generally, it is observed that it does not account for the reality of the context, history and conditions in Africa as well as disregarding Africans’ perception of same-sex desire. Generally, in most African states, governments do not support same sex desires and media campaigns have been intensified to condemn the practice. This paper presents an argument that in most regions in Africa, there is s general belief that same-sex sexuality is a taboo and not acceptable. This is observed by the contribution of Africans based on their ideologies and negative attitude towards the practice by the extent to which they campaign against the idea of same-sex relationships.

Introduction

This paper tries to determine whether the theory of same-sex sexuality is accepted in Africa and the attitudes of Africans towards the practice. In various African contexts, when a person engages in same –sex sexuality, such a person was usually marred by denials and various silences aimed at regarding such practices as borrowed from the western countries and ungodly.  Generally, it is argued that while there has been great contribution from the west towards African same-sex sexuality in provision of visibility of the desire for a partner of the same sex, there has not been sufficient theorizing to enable understanding of same-sex desire that of trying to abandon deeply acquired beliefs and psychological mindset as a result of colonization.

However, this paper does not focus on an argument that makes Africa exceptional nor does it involve a racist perception of Africa as a dark continent that is entrenched in homophobic and that needs to be rescued. On the other hand, the paper mainly focuses on the need to determine the right theory that captures the realities, complications and experiences  in the continent among African people rather than generally accepting a theory, on the basis of influence from western countries where sexuality is represented in a static, de-contextualized and casual terms. The main sections of this paper include traces of historical development of the term sexuality theories, focusing on demonstrating how the western ideas are used to explain sexuality. It also provides an exploration of political and historical difficulties that deter the process of understanding the theory of sexuality in African contexts. It also provides a conclusion pertaining to how the theory might be affected.

The Theory of Sexuality

There many theories and models that have been used to explain the idea of same-sex sexuality in Africa. An example is the theory that Africans generally live according to their ancestral ways of life and do not accept same-sex sexuality behavior. The practice of a man being in a relationship with another man or a woman being in a relationship with another woman is regarded retrogressive in most cultures as well as a violation of the ways in which Africans are supposed to live.

On the other hand, some people argue that Africans have in some cases practiced homosexuality at the remote level  but because they do not have an idea of the way in which the act can be defined, they have always kept quiet about it. This has resulted into the assumption that the act of homosexuality has its origin in western countries and most Africans s have declined to believe that they are homosexuals.

Some Africans have opinionated that their religions play significant roles in establishing the form of relationship they should be in. for instance, most people in the rural areas in African countries reported that their religions did not require then to become homosexuals. People from torsional religious backgrounds as well as cultural backgrounds explained that their Christian and African heritage did not allow them to become homosexuals.

Other opinions have been suggested by religious organizations that have influenced the manner in which sexuality is viewed. Some African religious organizations have explained that when God created man, he did so by creating a man and a woman so that they could complement each other and bring forth children. The condemnation of same sex-relationships has been based on the fact that same sex relationships cannot result into any bearing of children. However, they have explained that there might be circumstances where a person should be allowed to exercise their relationship freedoms. Thus, some religious organizations have accepted the idea of same sex relationships. This has influenced the perceptions of their believers and it has been observed that there are some believers in some church groups who have accepted the idea of a man being in a relationship with another man or a woman being in a relationship with another woman..

The above discussions show that the development of the sociological theory  as a result of sexuality is based on the influence from the West; the transitions have taken place without the influence from the South. The use of western theory in other locations is made on the assumption of a commonality in experience and history.  There is no account for the context and location. Such as trend is blamed on the fact that Western scholarships are not provided on the basis of its location. It implies that there is the need for sociological theory to theorize on those in the South. Despite the existence of a number of theories that attempt to explain the experiences of Africans people such as colonial theory, critical feminist theory and the Southern theory, there are also limitations associated with these theories in that they attempt to address issues relating to sexuality and are generally developed by African people. While there is no general opposition to all western theories in the African contexts, the historical and political alignment of these theories result into a reduction on location and context to an insignificant level.

Opinions of Africans towards same-sex sexuality

Most Africans have expressed mixed opinions towards same-sex sexuality. However, it has been found that in most African cultures, they theorization of same sex sexuality does not have African origin. They consider the practice to have been brought by the missionaries and colonizers who imposed western cultures on them. They support this opinion with the fact that their cultures do not allow a man and a man to engage in a relationship or a woman and a woman to engage in a relationship. They support this claim by the claiming they follow the lifestyles of their forefathers who lived ethically by avoiding same-sex relationships. Most Africans have also expressed their dislike for the practice and they have explained that if a person is identified to be homosexual, such a person is most likely to be stigmatized and regarded as an outcast. In some communities, people who engage in same sex-sexuality are banished from their communities as a form of punishment and condemnation of the practice.

This opinion of Africans has been observed in the manner in which various activists and leaders in Africa have strived to condemn the practice. Generally, journalists in Africa have contributed significantly towards condemning homosexuality in Africa. While it is widely known that same-sex relations have been in existence in various continents, most leaders in Africa have been bold enough to inform people that homosexuality is a culture of the Western countries but imposed upon us. For instance, the President of Zimbabwe, Robert Mugabe has declared same-sex relations as worse than dogs and pigs. Similar reactions have been observed among presidents of other countries in Africa such as Zambia, Botswana, Chad, Malawi, Swaziland, Kenya and Gabon.  These governments have expressed sharp reactions against people who engage in same-sex sexuality. The criticism against same-sex sexuality desiring people has been based on ‘our culture’ but closer examination indicates efforts aimed at manipulating cultures and distortion of people who are in power.

In addition, the media in various parts of Africa has been used instrumentally to support homophobic sentiment and rhetoric in addition to promoting the practice. In Malawi for instance, homosexuality is treated as a ‘new’ menace that needs to be eliminated before it spreads. Another journalist in Uganda, Giles Muhame has dedicated his efforts towards the fight against homosexuality by publishing the names, pictures and information about people who engage in same-sex sexuality. In Nigeria, a similar experience has been observed where a bill that opposes same sex marriage has been passed. According to the act, same-sex marriage is an offence. In addition, going to same-sex clubs is prohibited and individuals involved in such relationships are likely to be jailed for 14 years as a punishment. The media has also affected the way in which Africans view same-sex sexuality by embracing the practice. For instance, there are some youth in major towns in African countries where most youths are involved in homosexuality. This has resulted into various cases of people who are homosexuals and supportive of the practice. This is contributed by the modern lifestyle where urban life is regarded more prestigious and superior to rural life. As a result, some African governments have been under pressure to implement laws that allow same-sex sexuality. For instance, the government of Uganda under president Yoweri Museveni passed a bill that would allow same-sex sexuality in Uganda. This is as a result of pressure from urban environment where youths are influenced by the modern lifestyles.

Conclusion

According to the illustrations in this paper, the present theorization of same-sex sexuality in Africa is generally not accepted in most parts of the continent. Generally, the public consider the practice to be related to western culture and a violation of their taboos. However, it is observed that there are instances where people engage in same-sex relationships such as women kissing each other but they do not want to accept the label of homosexuality. The impact of modern lifestyle and the influence from western lifestyle is however observed to have an impact on same-sex sexuality and some Africans are getting influenced into believing  the suitability of this form of relationship. It can be concluded that they are aware of prohibition of the practice but they are compelled to engage in it as a result of circumstances. Thus, it is concluded that same-sex sexuality in Africa is a practice that most Africans consider unethical and would not like to happen in their societies thus they have advocated for people not to engage in this form of relationship. It would be recommended that reasonable arguments should be made in contempt of the idea of same-sex sexuality so that people are informed about the impact of this form of relationship.

Related essays

  1. Cash Basis and Accruals
  2. Behavioral Treatment for Autism
order now
X
first discount  Order now