Organ : nasal septum and paranasal sinuses


The nasal septum is located in the nose and represents a wall that separates nasal passages.

Paranasal sinuses are located in the bones of the skull which are connected to the nose by passageways. There are four pairs of paranasal sinuses that are named for the facial bones they are located in. Front sinuses are located within the bone of the forehead above the level of the eyes and nasal bridge; maxillary sinuses are located within the bones of each cheek; ethmoid sinuses are located under the bone of the inside corner of each eye, sphenoid sinuses are located behind the ethmoid sinuses.


The septum consists of a little fleshy external surface (columella), an anterior septal cartilage and posterior bony part. The bony septum is comprised of four bones of the skull: the crest of the maxillary bone, the crest of the palantine bone, the perpendicular plate of the ethmoid bone, and the vomer bone.

Sinuses are air-filled spaces which have pink mucous membrane lining that is stuffed with cilia, and are connected to the nose cavity with narrow openings (ostia).


The nasal septum has such functions as the support of the nose and mucous membranes of the nose. Sinuses humidify and heat inhaled air, lighten the weight of the head, increase the resonance of speech and olfactory area, and serve as a crumple zone to protect vital structures in the event of facial trauma. Also sinuses are the areas where the mucus is produced to moisten the nasal chambers and inhaled air.


Deviation of nasal septum occurs when the nasal septum is shifted to either side in the nose. That makes airflow in one or both of the nostrils obstructed. In such a case inhaled air does not get to olfactory nerves which send the signal to olfactory lobes. This causes the loss of the sense of smell. Nasal deviation can lead to chronic sinusitis as sinuses may be obstructed, which means that the entry air will not be properly filtered, warmed or moisturized before reaching the lungs. When the nose is stuck in an upswing, the perpendicular plate can be forced inwards into the skull. This will crush the cribiform plate of the olfactory lobes where the nerves enter the brain for the sense of smell. The crista gali of the cribiform plate is a long ridge and if it is force inwards, death can occur.


The deviation of nasal septum may be caused by nasal carcinoma, chronic infections, syphilis, and tuberculosis. Chronic nosebleeds and manipulation of the nose may cause perforated septum. Sinuses failure may be caused by breaking of facial bones in which they are located.

CHARACTERICSTIC: dark circles under the eyes


The skin under the eyes is mostly of the same tone as the skin of the face. As the skin around eyes is quite thin, dark circles appear when capillaries and veins become visible though skin. The darkness can appear slowly and be of different hues: from grey shadows to bluish circles that resemble bruises. The capillaries can burst and seep blood between the skin and muscle layers making the circles very dark red and then green and then yellow as the blood is broken down and removed by the immune and lymphatic systems.


Constant fatigue, physical and emotional stressfulness, lack of proper sleep and food, deficiency of vitamins, smoking, alcohol. Beside all of these factors of life dark under-eye circles may develop as a normal part of person’s aging. Other causes can be allergies, heredity, and atopic dermatitis, nasal congestion which dilates and darken the veins from nose to eyes, sun exposure, pigmentation irregularities and etc


Consultation of a dermatologist is needed to find out the real cause of the dark under-eye circles unless a person knows what caused them.

Using eye creams with deficient vitamins and microelements (K, C), less stressful life, well-balanced food, proper sleep, eye masks.