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In the research study titled “A Meta-Evaluation of Smoking Cessation Intervention Research among Pregnant Women: Improving the Science and Art,” Windsor and colleagues (1998) evaluates the effectiveness of research studies on smoking cessation intervention among pregnant women, conducted by other researchers between 1986 and 1998. The researchers evaluate the selected research studies based on five criteria. These are “evaluation of the research design, sample size and representativeness, characteristics of the population, the quality of measurement, and duplication of interventions” (Windsor et al., 1998).

The researchers conducted a Medline search, which entails retrieving various research studies though the National Library of Medicine-National Institutes of Health (Windsor et al., 1998). From the result of the Medline search, the researchers randomly selected 23 research studies based on experimental and quasi-experimental research designs. The researchers in this study evaluated every research study selected independently, and then evaluate the same research studies jointly. The results of this study indicated that twelve out of the 23 studies were excellent. That is, they scored highly in all the five predetermined criteria of the meta-evaluation. Each of the twelve research studies scored above 18 points (out of 30). In addition, the twelve research studies were found to have excellent counseling content and sufficient duration of patient contact with the counselors. The remaining eleven research studies scored below 18 out of 30 points in all the predetermined evaluation criteria. However, high levels of biases were observed in many of the research studies. Most of these studies did not provide information about the demographic, health, and behavioral characteristics of the population where the samples were sourced (Windsor et al., 1998)

In this study, the target population is all research studies concerning smoking cessation intervention among pregnant women conducted between 1986 and 1998. The sampling frame is a list of the 23 research studies selected from available research studies, while the sample is the 23 research studies. The sampling frame in this study is apparent. This is because every individual study in the list of 23 research studies provides sufficient information for the study. They provide the exact information that the authors are look for.