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Behavioral Treatment for Autism

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Introduction

Conducting a study in the area of cognitive psychology can provide much regarding the working of the brain, the systems, and regions of the brain, which are engaged in performing different tasks. This is mostly studied on developing individuals although it is as well to attempt to work out the exact manner the brain as well as the mind functions in groups of individuals with a typical growth. This implies that it can be easy to comprehend the similarities as well as disparities in the manner individuals with autism think in contrast to typically growing individuals. A better comprehension would be offer an appropriate platform to enable the identification and harnessing strengths and building on weaknesses, which individuals with autism may possess. Autism is a significant issue because it affects about 1% of the populace. Therefore, studying about autistic individuals, especially school going children would be important in helping to manage the disease. Therefore, there is need to study behavior treatment for children with autism. This will be accomplished by exploring five journal articles, which will help to guide in behavioral management interventions.

Eikeseth, S., Smith, T., Jahr, E., & Eldevik, S. (2002). Intensive behavioral treatment at school for 4-to 7-year –old children with autism: A 1-year comparison. Behav. Modif, 26(1), 49-68

Svein Eikeseth, Tristram Smith, Erik Jahr and Sigmund Eldevik performed a research to assess an years intensive treatment for children between 4 and 7 years with autism. The children were assigned to behavioral and eclectic treatments. The assignment was independent of the child’s features or family inclination. Each of the treatment groups was given the same quantities of treatment. Those given behavioral treatment had considerably higher achievements on standardized tests in contrast to those who received eclectic treatment. According to the results, a considerable number of the sample made great improvements after receiving the behavioral treatment. This implies that behavioral treatment can be implemented successfully in school going children because of the favorable outcome associated with this treatment.

The article is well written because it is presented as a scientific journal is with an abstract, introduction, methodology, and result section. The methodology is scientifically accepted whereas the results are properly presented even in tabular form, which makes them more comprehensive. The article is well researched because the relevant literature has been reviewed extensively. The sample chosen is adequate whereas the inclusion criterion is appropriate. The sample is a representative of the entire population. As such, this research is reliable and thus, valid.

Eikeseth, S., Smith, T., Jahr, E., & Eldevik, S. (2007). Outcome for children with autism who began intensive behavioral treatmenr between ages 4 and 7: A comparison controlled study. Behav Modif., 31(3), 264-278

This research was done by Svein Eikeseth, Tristram Smith, Erik Jahr and Sigmund Eldevik. It was performed as an extension of the outcomes of the influences of intensive applied conduct analytic intervention for autistic children who started treatment at an average age of 5.5 years. The group given behavior treatment was contrasted to a group treated eclectically. They were assigned to groups independently founded on the availability of qualified supervisors. The two treatments were done in public schools for typically growing children. The group given behavioral treatment depicted an increased IQ improvement at about 8 years. Their adaptive functioning was improved in contrast to the group treated eclectically. In addition, the group treated behaviorally depicted decreased aberrant conducts as well as social issues at follow-up. The outcomes propose that treating the children behaviorally was effective for the autistic children in the research.

The research is well-written and presented scientifically. The article’s introduction gives insight into the autism and the matters pertaining to difficulties in management. It allows the reader to grasp the overview of the researched topic. The methodology employed is scientifically acceptable thereby making the research valid. The results are presented in an easily understood manner thereby allowing the reader to infer their meaning and thus make necessary conclusions to better their lives. The article although introduces no new ideas is a confirmation of the results obtained by the same authors in 2002. The 2002 and 2007 results by Svein Eikeseth, Tristram Smith, Erik Jahr and Sigmund Eldevik proves that behavioral treatment is an effective intervention for autistic children.

Matson, J., Matson, M., & Rivet, T. (2007). Social-skills treatments for children with autism spectrum disorders: An overview. Behav. Modif., 31(5), 682-707

This research was performed by Johnny L. Matson, Michael L. Matson and Tessa T. Rivet. The authors aimed to study the treatments available for autistic children in terms of social behavior, particularly those with spectrum disorders. This was after discovering that past studies lacked adequate information if any or failed entirely to address the issue of treating ASD through applied behavior scrutiny. In their review, Matson, Matson, and Rivet referred to 79 previous treatment researches. Their outcome was that their study was marked specifically by fragmented growth applying numerous intervention approaches as well as the construct’s definitions. From the outset, the preferable model included modeling as well as reinforcement with majority of the studies performed in school surroundings by tutors or psychologists. According to the research outcome, investigators have been keen on generalization issues plus follow-up. Matson, Matson, and Rivet claim that comprehensive group researches and comparison of dissimilar training approaches are almost nonexistent. The trends identified in this research are important for future research because they show the importance of social interventions in the management of autism.

The article is informative and has enriched my knowledge on a different aspect of behavior treatment, which has to do with treating autistic children with social-skills approaches. The contents of the article are represented appropriately and the literature reviewed is comprehensive to provide the gap identified with previous researches. The methodology employed in this study is in line with the proposed objective and aims of the study. The authors presented their results in a simplified manner, which allows comprehensive understanding and application of the outcome. However, due to lack of related studies concerned with social-skills treatment for autistic children, the study depicts some gap, which necessitates scholars to explore more on the same in future. The results are important to psychologists and teachers handling autistic children because they can improve their lives if implemented comprehensively.

Howard, J., Sparkman, C., Cohen, H., Green, G., & Stanislaw, H. (2005). A comparison of intensive behavior analytic and eclectic treatments for young children with autism. Research in Developmental Disabilities, 26, 359-383.

The research by Howard, Sparkman, Cohen, Green, and Stanislaw aimed at comparing the intensive conduct analytic (IBT) as well as eclectic treatments for young autistic children. The authors made a comparison of the influence of three treatment strategies on nursery going children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). 29 participants were given IBT whereas 16 were given eclectic treatment. The third method involved a comparison of 16 children in non-rigorous public timely intervention programs. For all the treatment groups, the variables at the intake level were similar. After following up on the study, the set of children given IBT had their means standard with a higher score than the other treatments. Consequently, the researchers concluded that their results were consistent with previous study outcomes depicting IBT as a more effective treatment approach in contrast to eclectic approach.  

This research increased the validity of the articles I have researched because it proves that behavioral treatment is an effective approach in autism management in children. Therefore, I completely believe that behavior treatment should be administered to all autistic children. The article presents an abstract that gives the scope of the project thereby giving an insight to the entire study. The authors introduce the topic of study extensively thereby allowing the reader to comprehend the scope of the topic. On the other hand, the methodology employed in this study has answered the research questions. Additionally, the research questions match the conclusions made by the authors.

Sheinkopf, S., & Siegel, B. (1998). Home-based behavioral treatment of young children with autism. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 28(1), 15-23

Sheinkopf and Siegel studied to assess the influence of intensive behavioral treatment (IBT) on the growth of children suffering autism. The researchers employed a home-based treatment, which was implemented by parents with autistic children being helped by community-based physicians. The parents made reports that the therapy was founded on approaches developed previously despite the failure to observe treatment directly. Treatment was different from the one depicted in previous studies concerning IBT for the same populace in that it was executed outside a learning setting as well as for a shorter time. Additionally, children were given lesser hours every therapy week than in past papers. Children in the trial treatment group were matched in pairs to children in a controlled sample based on pretreatment chronological as well as mental age, diagnosis, and treatment’s length. The groups failed to agree on pretreatment IQ. Those being given the trial treatment had considerably more post-treatment IQ scores. In addition, the researchers found some statistically considerable influence on symptom severity, although trial samples still satisfied diagnostic criterion for autism.

This research is knowledgeable as it engaged therapy at home in contrast to other studies, which are conducted in schools by teachers and psychologists. It helps the parents to take part in learning how they can assist their autistic children thereby improving their lives. The research is written well in an organized manner, which is accepted for psychology papers. The abstract provides an overview of the entire report whereas all other parts supposed to be in a research report are present and well presented. The methodology matches the research questions whereas the conclusions made answer these questions comprehensively. The only major problem is the bias, which could result from the methodology considering that it is home-based. Some parents could fail to follow the provided procedure or make the wrong reports on the indentified behavior thereby causing errors in the results.

Summary

All the researched articles are journals reporting on studies conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of behavior therapy in contrast to eclectic treatment. The studies have used methodologies that match the research questions and the paper’s purpose. The methodology employed in the researches includes behavior therapy, which in four studies, it is contrasted to eclectic treatment whereas in one study, it is employed individually. The researches are written properly with detailed information and proper presentation thereby suiting to be called research papers with all the scientific requirements. Therefore, the results in all the researched papers, it is clear that behavior treatment is the most effective strategy for managing childhood autism. From the research, it is evident that no genetic markers exist to evaluate if a person with autistic spectrum is founded on behavioral criteria. Consequently, when one is evaluated to make a decision whether they are on the spectrum, they complete it by monitoring their behavior. This explains why the authors in the five researches employed behavior treatment, which yielded the desired outcomes.

Applications of this Research

This research is very informative because autism has been a disastrous disease without a cure and therefore, with the proposed and proven behavior treatment, individuals with autistic children can benefit from it. Therefore, it can be applied to my personal and community goals. The research has given information on how this intervention works; it engages the whole family plus the professionals working to manage the disease. With regard to personal goal, the research would help to sensitize those living around me with the disorder. I will use it to educate the community and make them understand how behavioral intervention will help their children and other affected members. I will also take a personal initiative to help the parents to these children in managing the disorder. I would offer necessary information, such as training the community on how to perform therapy successfully. I will also use the research to recommend the best approaches to the different autism cases. Using the research, I will compile necessary reports addressing issues about autism and how it can be managed thereby improving the lives of the affected children. This is because various interventions as well as supports are necessary during a child’s development and during the time, the child is acquiring social skills. For instance, as autistic children enroll school, they can gain from specified social skills teaching as well as focused strategies to teaching. The research can be an open opener for the entire community who should seek timely interventions to ensure successful treatment. The confidence in recommending behavioral treatment is based on the ground that scientific researches have shown that timely intensive behavioral intervention promotes learning, social skills, as well as communication in young autistic children.

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