Occupational Health and Safety is closely connected to the physiological, physical, and psychosocial conditions of the company’s workforce, allied to characteristics of work and the work situation. Occupational health and safety is an essential and basic part of any successful company. Work-related wounds, illnesses and stress, and quality of the working-existence of the personnel are related to the worker’s productivity. And there are three subjects observed in this paper: the importance of health and safety management in the workplace, people accountable for safety at work, and the United States Occupational Safety and Health Administration standards.
The Significance of Health and Safety Management and Planning in the Workplace
Barling and Frone assert occupational health and safety is the key issue for workers, and how management copes with this matter is of academic and also practical importance (Barling & Frone, 2004). The most common organizational approaches, which were utilized to create an adequate degree of safety, have concentrated on the best design of equipment (ergonomic approach), devotion to administration-imposed standards (legislative approach), or compliance with terms of communal agreements. Thus, systematic approaches to safety and health in the workplace are quickly emerging globally, being the finest strategy for organizations to lessen the occupational diseases and harms. Moreover, some scholars assert that the goal of the finest strategy is to enhance knowledge, augment the understanding, and utilize data to resolve certain troubles.
All scholars confirmed how significant OH&S knowledge is by the international burden of work-related death rates. The workforce of the globe is almost 2.9 billion out of a total of 6.2 billion humans, and they work in many situations from pre-industrial to technology and information. Furthermore, between years 1996 and 1998, there were approximately 48,000 occupational major harms. Prevention is at all times better than cure. So, whilst a company’s manners after the incident can have crucial continuing outcomes for the conduct of suit, this should not distract an employer from the main aim of preventing incidents in the first place. Ideally, work-related harms and diseases have to be prevented rather than be relied on the leading cure. Therefore, employers, employees, and the entire management need to accept certain roles and responsibilities.
Roles and Responsibilities of Employers
Each manager should guarantee safety, health, and welfare at work of all workers. Here are the spheres the company should defend the personnel from:
- To provide and preserve spheres of work that are safe and possess no risks to health;
- To guarantee the minimal risk when transporting some objects;
- To provide the required data, training, instruction, and supervision to guarantee the safety of the personnel;
- To guarantee the place of work is preserved in an atmosphere, which is safe.
- Every business-owner has to prepare and maintain an up-to-date statement of health and safety at work. It is necessary to make sure that all workers note this statement.
Roles and Responsibilities of Employees
- To take care for the safety and health of themselves and other people who may be influenced by their deeds at work;
- To collaborate with their business-owner or manager or any other individual in control to see that all the requirements are carried out.
Roles and Responsibilities of Management
The management’s major accountability is to guarantee the health and safety of stuff and to lessen the risks associated with the work activities to workers and also common people. They must have (and make sure workers know about it) a statement of health and safety policy. They should also:
- Estimate the risks personnel could face at work;
- Have certain preparations for organizing, planning, controlling, managing and reviewing defensive measures;
- Have a person who will guarantee the workplace corresponds to the health and safety regulations;
- Guarantee workers acknowledge the information concerning the risks they face and that they have the right defensive equipment.
A work-related incident or disease may cause direct and indirect cost to the personnel members, their relatives and even the business-owners. Approximately 250 million work-related incidents happen every year internationally. Out of these, 335,000 of these incidents are lethal (Barling & Frone, 2004). These incidents take place more in the developing nations than in the industrialized ones due to shortage of Occupational Health and Safety Programs. Medium-sized and large companies have been capable to keep shoulder to shoulder with alterations in OHS law, whilst small companies are not capable to do so. This is due to low training and management skills, shortage of sources and dependency on large organizations.
In the USA, the US Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) is the major federal organization charged with the strengthening of health and safety health legislation. OSHA’s task is to “guarantee healthful and safe labor conditions for working people by setting and strengthening the standards and by providing training, education and help” (OSHA). The OSHA’s regulations comprise the restriction on the chemical exposure, personnel access to data, requirements for the usage of personal defensive equipment, and requirements for safety standards. In its initial year of work, OSHA was allowed to accept regulations based on guiding principles placed by some standards organizations, for instance, the Us Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists, without having to pass through the requirements of a usual rulemaking. And in 2000, OSHA presented the ergonomics standard. Between 2001 and 2011, OSHA has demonstrated merely four novel health and safety standards; during this time period, the agency has transmitted the rules at a much slower rate than during any other ten years in the agency’s history.
Generally speaking, OSHA is accountable for strengthening the standards on regulated units. The organization sends the Compliance Safety and Health Officers to the work sites, where they follow the inspections and appraise fines for regulatory violations. Examinations are planned for companies in mainly dangerous spheres. Inspections may also result in response to incidents at work or employee complaints. The rules issued by the Occupational Safety and Health Administration of the American Department of Labor (Federal OSHA) are obligatory only to the private sector business-owners. Thus, private organizations should comply with all of the appropriate OSHA regulations. For instance, a private sphere rescue team would comprise the on-site fire team, which carries out restricted space rescue. This team would be required to obey the OSHA Permit-Required Confined Space standard, 29 CFR § 1910.146 (OSHA). Also, all Federal government companies have to obey all OSHA rules (or the standards of their own, which are at least as effectual as the OSHA standards in defending employees).
State and local administration agencies are not a subject to the rules set by Federal OSHA. Though Federal OSHA regulations are not straightforwardly related to local and state departments or agencies, the Federal OSHA law provides every state with the opportunity to work under own occupational safety and health programs. The states, which prefer to utilize own programs, are named "state OSHA jurisdictions" or "OSHA states", and according to the Federal law, have to cover local and state administration workers in the same way as they do private sphere workers. Though many states have issued own regulations (counting California, Washington and Michigan), most state OSHA jurisdictions have merely accepted the Federal standards. So, in most state OSHA jurisdictions, community sector organizations have to comply with Federal standards (OSHA).
The main of all occupational health and safety programs is to cultivate safe work environment. Employees all over the globe every day face different risks of gases, noise, vibration, dust, chemicals, and high temperatures. Some of the business-owners are not worried concerning the safety of the employees. As a result, many terrible incidents take place to the members of the personnel. Today, technology is changing all the time. Many business-owners do not have information to manage health and safety in the workplace in compliance to the current technology. That is why, it is so important to correspond to the OSHA standards, to have written safety and health statement at work, and to make sure each employee is acquainted with this statement.