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The United States Welfare State

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The political and economic decisions made in this period affected the economic and social inequalities during in America. This paper studies the welfare state of America and its economic and political design during the early twentieth century. It focuses on the Progressive era, the Great society, the postwar era and the Depression during the 1960. The paper studies the social equity during this period in the United States of America. This paper uses secondary information in providing adequate basis for the case study that offers reliable information on the subject (Swenson 1997).

The progressive era in the United States happened during the year 1901 to 1918. This movement was meant for the young men and women reformists' generation of their post Civil War. These Progressives were recorded as middle class women and men who traditionally belonged to the Republican Party alliance. They were fundamentally oriented for urban setups but they had a conscious outlook for modernity. By the year 1912, this progressivism turned out to belong to the Democratic Party. Progressiveness remained a strong force in the 1920's in Arkansas, despite the death of Jeff Davis.

Socialism has cooperative aspects that were appealing to the agrarian radicals who took up the activity of Populism. Those workers who had felt the exploitation that came from factory system. After workers in farms had been drawn away, issues on agriculture were a key concern in the socialism in Arkansas (Skocpol 1995).

1. How successful would you argue the U.S. welfare state has been in advancing equity?

The United States of America has struggled with social and political difficulties for a long time. Early philosophers like Hebert made significant contributions towards this realization. America is currently having an admired structural system in social and political aspects. The need for equity among its citizens pushed for the use of social theories that built the nation. Their success in establishing a better and social stable system was met with opposition from supporters of capitalism.

2. In what ways has the welfare state reduced social and economic inequalities?

The Collective Ownership of Industry platform were purposed to improve crucial conditions. It is designed to cut down on the amount of working hours; offer compulsory, free and quality education; aid through pension programs and national insurance; women were to receive equal rights; provision of full employment; recall of officials who are elected and offer a proportional representation and referendum. The conservative policies on labor unions did not please socialists; these policies were from a radical group called Industrial Workers of the World. This led to the split of party due to internal disagreements. This socialism is termed as one favoring agrarian radicalism (Brown 1999).

After the policies in referendum and initiative were passed in Arkansas, the 1912 reassessment on tax was repealed by voters through referendum. It is this initiative that allowed for the passing of the child labor law. The next year welcomed the passing of Amendment 15, which restricted their legislature to sixty days of sessions. This saw the reduction in legislator's pay. Donaghey saw the release of three hundred and sixty prisoners. He discovered that some prisoners had been held in prisons despite the end of their term. He insisted on the release of prisoners thus contributed little to the present conditions (Heilbronner 2012).

Brough made a significant contribution to Arkansas in terms of resources. This region could be secluded but its resources were adequate for the people. He created connections with many former students for the aid in education. Brough championed for support in the sector of labor Oppression against women was a common vice that he promised to wipe out (Skowronek 2008). During his first term in office; he adopted statewide prohibition, built reformatory for girls, expanded the public health commitment and introduced a mandatory attendance in schools as a law.

3. In what ways has it reinforced or reproduced existing inequalities?

Women received their rights from the progressive movement. The rights were concerned with marriage and possession of property; problems were addressed thus enabling easier living. These reforms by the Progressives made a significant contribution towards the transformation of social and political progress in America (Brown 1999).

Truman pushed the policies by Roosevelt on the New Deal in spite of the opposition from Republicans. These policies touched on improving social security, implementing controls on rent, offer house facilities for those with low income and conservation. He increased African Americans' political status; the first time in history; this support was aimed at the actions of civil rights (Swenson 1997).

Truman's various other reforms were much like the proposals of Roosevelt, but the mood of the nation due to its affluence and that of Congress opposed his efforts and the changing times proved that Truman's Fair Deal was not as necessary as FDR's New Deal. This era brought a reduction in elections that were racist. The black community in the army demanded their voting right, free from intimidation from supremacist from the whites. Many blacks in America died due to actions from white leaders, Truman took the initiative and a body for Civil Rights was created. This committee protects the blacks from racism and oppression for declaring their rights in constitutional issues. This action was principal in the long struggle of the blacks in America against racial segregation (Heilbronner 2012).

Veterans of war were given GI Bill of Rights. These rights accounted for their tuition and costs of living, thus a total of five hundred dollars. These efforts were aimed at serving the common good and hence appease citizens during the postwar era (Brown 1999).

The president at this time made a huge step in the military industry National security was established through unification of the military forces and the control over atomic bombs. Defense departments like Central Intelligence Agency were established. National boards were created to help in military decisions and security issues in the nation. The role of presidential autonomy in nuclear energy added presidential responsibilities. National security was a paramount concern during the postwar era.

This New Deal and the Fair Deal advocated for an improved economy and full employment; to give for common good. Minimum wage was improved from forty cents to seventy five dollars under the Fair Labor Standards Act. The elderly got an increase in benefits of seventy seven per cent through the developed act on Social Security. Looking at the issue of housing and accommodation, rent controls were lengthened to March in 1951. Slums were to be eliminated for the creation of better living conditions (Brown 1999). Another policy was the establishment of an Employment Act in the year 1946; to improve on economy in the postwar period.

During the postwar era, Truman looked into the issue of farming and agriculture. He struggles to see that farmers worked in conducive conditions. Brennan Plan was urged to cater for the standards of farm income by supporting prices, offering loans and storing commodities that were not perishable. The survivors of Nazi wrangles were given refuge in America through the act of Displaced Persons (Skocpol 1995).

In the 1960's and 1970, a different regulatory regime developed in America. This period, just the preceding eras, was connected to the creation and mobilization of interest that focus on economic growth. These demands were translated and shaped into institutional and policy change through new visions for the political economy and a new philosophy on administration. Postwar era gave an improvement in real incomes, thus this period did not attract efforts for income improvement.

Social regulations addressed production aspects and its negativity. They favored the quality of the goods produced and services offered the environment, and the life threatening by products of industries. These social regulations intended to protect the general public through constraining on deadly and unfriendly activities (Brown 1999). For instance, in the year 1971, there was a policy that prohibited pollution of both water and air by human activity. This policy protected against occupational disease and accidents, and the promotion of consumer safety. New regulatory legislation was passed by combining political entrepreneurship, mobilizing advocacy groups and exploiting events that are highly publicized. This legislation was distinct from others in many aspects. This legislation was more precise than other legislation. For instance, the environmental legislation that prohibited both air and water pollution. The EPA was urged to plan for a thirty day clean air initiative. The amount of air pollution by motor vehicles was to be reduced by the automakers, under this legislation. The need for more environmental friendly vehicles made the car industry experience difficulties in improvements as the technology was not yet determined.

Conclusion

The progressive era in the United States happened during the year 1901 to 1918. This movement was meant for the young men and women reformists' generation of their post Civil War. These Progressives were recorded as middle class women and men who traditionally belonged to the Republican Party alliance. It is designed to cut down on the amount of working hours; offer compulsory, free and quality education; aid through pension programs and national insurance; women were to receive equal rights; provision of full employment; recall of officials who are elected and offer a proportional representation and referendum. After the policies in referendum and initiative were passed in Arkansas, the 1912 reassessment on tax was repealed by voters through referendum. It is this initiative that allowed for the passing of the child labor law.

Brough made a significant contribution to Arkansas in terms of resources. This region could be secluded but its resources were adequate for the people. He created connections with many former students for the aid in education. Women received their rights from the progressive movement. The rights were concerned with marriage and possession of property; problems were addressed thus enabling easier living. This era brought a reduction in elections that were racist. The black community in the army demanded their voting right, free from intimidation from supremacist from the whites. The president at this time made a huge step in the military industry National security was established through unification of the military forces and the control over atomic bombs. Defense departments like Central Intelligence Agency were established.

Social regulations addressed production aspects and its negativity. This period, just the preceding eras, was connected to the creation and mobilization of interest that focus on economic growth. They favored the quality of the goods produced and services offered, the environment, and the life threatening by products of industries. This legislation was more precise than other legislation. The amount of air pollution by motor vehicles was to be reduced by the automakers, under this legislation (Heilbronner 2012).

These periods that have developed in American history forms its stable social and political economy. For instance, the policy on employment opportunities put the nation at an advantage as the social divide reduced due to equality in major sectors. The progressive policy on education, gave America an early foothold in education for the benefit of the greater majority. These policies that improved the social and political structure of the nation are efforts aimed at national growth. America is currently on of the most social and political stable countries, thus this early establishment was essential.

4. How and why did the U.S. wefare state evolve in these days?

The emergence of these policies and transformation periods came due to national concerns by leaders and philosophers. The need for a better environment for the public was a primary issue for the Great Society (Heilbronner 2012). Policies on sustaining environmental concerns like pollution made part of the social regulations in America. The regulatory policies in this period focused on achieving a suitable environment for the citizens of this nation. Policies that contributed towards state welfare came after war or government transitions; for example, the postwar era of Truman as the president. Republicans and capitalists fought against the socialists in developing America's welfare state.

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