Tanzania is a country situated in Eastern Africa with high human population. The demographic context is taking place amid poor health conditions and poverty in the country. Revolution in the health sector in Tanzania is required so that there can be impact to the health challenges in Tanzania. This country has scarce medical resources and they need to be used prudently so that they can have greatest impact and delivery as per the set targets.
The rural economy of Tanzania, like in many developing countries, is supported by agriculture, which provides very little pension cover to the health care services. They practice subsistence farming growing maize, cassava and rice. Revolution in the health sector of Tanzania needs to take deep insight on how to help the people make health choices. It also needs to influence all the systems and processes that have impact on the people’s health (Olbrich, 2008). Poor quality of life and health in Tanzania is associated with sex, age, marital status and the level of education.
According to studies in Tanzania, the health status, physical ability and quality of life deteriorate as the age progress. This is because ageing is associated with illnesses. The country also has lower level of savings as a result of low level of education. It can be argued that an individual’s health is promoted by education due to access to information on self-care, improved eating habits and health.
For Tanzania to have a significant improvement in its health policies, it is necessary to accept the validity of various forms of knowledge concerning health. There is the need for development of a framework that will help the citizens of Tanzania work together with health professionals in the achievement of public health for promotion of health goals (Olbrich, 2008).
Promoting health of citizens in Tanzania is not only important to the health of individuals but also for the whole population. It will help the communities meet the environmental and economic challenges that face them. Improvement of health plays leading role in the reduction of antisocial behaviors and crime. Theories that are used in the promotion of health need to be integrative, flexible and of wide range to help societies overcome changes.
Public Health Programs and Policies
The health care system in Tanzania is faced by a shortage of health care specialists and professionals. The health system in the country is characterized by few members of staff in health care facilities who also lack motivation (Merson & Mills, 2006). There is lack of effective supervision, poor infrastructure in health facilities, poor transport, ineffective communication and shortage of medical equipment. Recommendations to the government of Tanzania would be for the government and other key stakeholders to take actions in providing human and financial resources to the health sector (Merson & Mills, 2006).
Efforts need to be made to educate health care professionals in Tanzania so that they can address health care issues effectively in order to curb health challenges in the country. It is worth noting that poverty is the main cause of health problems in Tanzania’s population. With high growth of population in the country more staffing in the hospitals is required.
In the rural communities of Tanzania people first seek care from traditional doctors and when medical services seem essential, they move to hospitals. As such, the government of Tanzania has at least two health workers per village for promotion of primary health care. In the country, there are district hospitals in each of the one hundred and thirty two districts (Merson & Mills, 2006).
The size of health workforce declined in the 1990s when the government imposed an employment freeze and retrenched most of its health workers. It thus requires the training and recruitment of many health workers in Tanzania to work in the government health sector. Tanzania usually relies on arranging health workers for provision of care in its health facilities, even though their number is usually very small compared to the people who seek health care in the country. Most health workers have a mid-level training and thus they cannot practice in the professional scope (Merson & Mills, 2006).
Several factors can be attributed to the challenges facing health sector in Tanzania. To improve the situation, more medical supplies and equipment needed to be availed. Health workers require supervision and motivation in their work. The problem of communication and transportation infrastructure needs to be addressed for there to be satisfaction in the Tanzania’s health sector.
Approaches at the Local and International Levels to Lessen Health Disparities and Communicable Diseases
Tanzania is characterized by shared social conditions which put the country’s population at risk of diseases. The population-at-risk approach needs to be used as a strategy in advancing health of the population and reducing the disparities that are usually present in health sector. Communicable diseases like tuberculosis need efforts that are focusing on the entire community and not only on a small population proportion (LaVeist, 2005). High exposure levels will precipitate disease levels and this puts the Tanzania’s population at a risk. Interventions on health need to be ones that reduce morbidity and mortality levels.
Global collaboration is very essential in the fight against communicable diseases since these diseases have no borders. Nations and countries need to collaborate on research and share knowledge on how they can curb the chronic and infectious communicable diseases (LaVeist, 2005). Steps need to be taken towards establishment of research and partnership centers in order to reduce global diseases including communicable diseases.
Recommendations on the enhancement of global health include generating and sharing knowledge on how to address endemic problems in the poor countries such as Tanzania (LaVeist, 2005). The quality and quantity of financial commitment to the global health needs to be increased as well as investing in capacity building in the poor countries.
The collaborative approach where the community is involved in promotion of global health enhances health since it prevents diseases and suggests interventions on how health can be promoted. It is clear that Tanzania being a developing country is exposed and vulnerable to communicable diseases due to social, economic, demographic and geographical factors.
Strategies for Overcoming Identified Communication Constraints Inherent for Public Health Interventions
Communication strategies in the health sector can take many forms including written, verbal and media channels. Communication strategies in health sector need to be sound where a health problem is identified. Then recipients of the communication message are identified in order to determine the best way that they can be reached (Bradshaw & Lowenstein, 2011). The communication message is then developed and tested as well. The health communication is implemented basing on the results as per testing. Finally, the message is assessed to determine its effectiveness on the target population.
The other thing to determine is how to conduct the outreach. An effective health communication campaign will use several methods in order to reach the target audience. It may involve media advocacy, advertising and entertainment education. The other things to be included in the communication strategy are budget and resources available (Bradshaw & Lowenstein, 2011).